Yes, black color is actually a magic color that goes with every kind of pairing, so yes definitely black socks can do a lot to your brown shoes, it looks elegant and you can even choose to have this pairing to put on while working in office.
However brown socks might not do the trick for black shoes, but black socks can make you look better as it clicks well with various colors.
A lot of people in their office are quite keen about their dressing, and even their socks, of course it is a part of your dressing, so what I have seen that they do not put on black socks if they are wearing brown shoes or if they are putting on some different color of their Best dress shoe.
Wear Black Socks with Brown Shoes
I even once asked my colleague they why he did not choose to put on black socks with his blue jeans, as they might have made a nice combination, and he said he was not quite sure if that color will go with his blue jeans.
So this is where people do not know what should they put on, black is a color that goes well with all colors, and especially if we are talking about shoes.
In fact you can notice that you can choose to put on any color of shoes, brown, white, black, or blue, but black socks are universal and you can make a nice contrast with them.
So yes answer is, that you can definitely put on black socks with brown shoes, and with any other color of shoes, but just make sure it does not look odd if you are putting on totally a black dress, then you should give yourself some different touch, like brown socks would be considerable on that condition.
But typically color black is something everyone needs with their dressing.